Anime (a short form of word animation) is a Japanese animation. In contrast to the other cartoons designed primarily for viewing by children, most of the produced anime is designed for teen and adult audiences, and largely due to this has a high popularity in the world. Anime has different characteristic manner of drawing the characters and backgrounds. It is published in the form of television series and films distributed on video media, or intended for cinema. Stories can describe a lot of characters, a variety of different places and eras, genres and styles.
The sources for the anime series story often are manga (Japanese comics), ranobe (light novel), or computer games (usually in the genre of "visual novel"). The film adaptation of the graphic style usually preserves other features of the original. Rarely used other sources, such as works of classical literature. There is also an anime with a completely original story (in this case the very anime can serve as a source for the creation of the book and manga versions). Meaning of "anime" may vary depending on the context. In Western countries, anime is the subject of research of scholars in cultural studies, sociologists and anthropologists - Eri Izawa, Scott MacLeod, Susan Napier, Sharon Kinsella and others.
History of Anime originated in the XX century, when Japanese filmmakers started the first experiments with animation technique invented in the West. The oldest known surviving Japanese animation - Katsudo Shashin takes only 3 seconds. One of the first anime was demonstrated in 1917, a two-minute comedy film «Namakura-gatana», where a samurai is going to experience a new sword, but is defeated by the citizen. The pioneers in the field of Japanese animation were Oten Shimokawa, Junichi Kochi and Seitaro Kitayama. One of the most popular and available methods at the time were engraved animation technique, it was used by such entertainers as Sanae Yamamoto, Yasuji Murata and Noboru Ofudzi. Later cell animation technique was spread. Other multipliers, such as Masaoka Kenzo and Seo Mitsu?, had success in the development of animation techniques, they used, in particular, animated films for educational and outreach purposes. The first shot was the sound anime Masaoka in 1933 short film Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka. By 1940, the organization began to form animators and artists, such as Shin Mangaha Shudan and Shin Nippon Mangaka. While the anime was actively used as a means of state propaganda. One of the first feature-length animated films Momotarou: Umi no Shinpei was shot by Mitsu? Seo in 1945.
The founder of the modern tradition of anime is Osamu Tezuka became. He laid the foundations of what was later transformed into a modern anime series. For example, Tezuka borrowed from Disney and developed large eyes style of the characters to express emotions. The first work of Tezuka manga became Shintakarajima. Later he created a manga called Tetsuwan Atomu (Astro Boy), which brought him success. By the 1970s, the popularity of manga increased significantly, many works were animated. Tezuka because the "god of manga and anime" as his work was often called the "legend".